The main and most outstanding authors of Romanticism emerged in Europe at the end of the EIGHTEENTH century. They were the most important representatives and exponents of an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that reached its greatest splendor between the years 1800 and 1850.
The emphasis on emotion, individualism, as well as the glorification of the past and nature were characteristic traits of this movement, which tended towards the medieval rather than the classical.
Its emergence can be seen as a reaction to the Industrial revolution, the scientific rationalization of nature, and the aristocratic social rules during the Enlightenment Era. Its most visible manifestations were in the visual arts, music and literature, although it also had an impact on historiography, education and social sciences.
It shares its etymology with terms like romance and Romanesco. In the EIGHTEENTH century, the term romantic had a similar meaning in both English and French (romantic contra romantique), both used to refer to the exaltation of natural phenomena such as landscapes and sunsets.
The romanticism lifted up the figure of the hero or the genius and emphasized his passions and internal challenges. The artist’s conception as an extremely individualistic creator whose creative spirit was more important than the strict adherence to traditional rules and procedures was a hallmark of the period.
The movement arose in Germany, but were Anglo-Saxon authors the most prolific and famous during this period.
Who were the main exponents of Romanticism in English-speaking literature?
Important writers of Romanticism
(1775-1817) Full of comedy, romance, ingenuity and satire, the six novels of this English author were also a sharp reflection of the social and territorial situation that England lived in its time.
He began to write being very young, with the constant support and promotion of his family and friends. His first great work was, Sense and Sensibility (1811) which took almost ten years to be published. He was followed by Pride and Prejudice two years later, which according to herself would be his favorite work. His last two works would be published after his death at 41 years old.
(1757-1827) This London author is known to have been a poet, painter and original and creative thinker, yet his work was practically ignored while he lived. The third of six brothers, he claimed to have been visited by Bright Angels in his childhood.
He designed a visual poetry technique that combined his texts with illustrations of his own authorship. Among his works stand out the marriage of Heaven and Hell and sings of innocence.
(1816-1855) Author recognized by his passionate novel Jane Eyre (1847), also published poems and three more novels. Born in England, third of six siblings, she was five years old when her mother died.
He spent part of his life devoted to teaching and his unbridled love for the director of the school where he worked inspired his novels Villette and the professor.
(1818-1848) His most outstanding work was the Wuthering Heights work written in 1847, although he also wrote more than two hundred poems that were described by his sister Charlotte as “of a particularly wild, melancholy and Enaltecedora musicality”.
Supported by her sister, she published a collection of poems in 1846. After his early death because of tuberculosis, a novel that left unfinished was destroyed by Charlotte.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
(1806-1861) One of the most praised poets of her time. Born in England, she is best known for her work Sonnets from the Portuguese, a collection of love poems written for her husband Robert Browning. He died in Florence, Italy.
(1815-1882): One of the most prolific authors of the NINETEENTH century, his works include The Chronicles of Barsetshire and The Way We Live Now. His illustration of the ordinary life enlivened by humour earned him the affection of the readers and assured him a continuous popularity.
His extensive production is impressive given that at the same time he maintained a successful post-service career.
He produced a total of 47 novels, an autobiography, two plays, short stories, travel books, articles, essays and speeches. Proud of his talent, he presumed to always have a pen on hand and give himself to the work of writing as does a mechanic or a shoemaker.
H. G. Wells
He gave Aknowledge for his science fiction literary creations, he was a great scientist
His studies of zoology inspired him to write science fiction. The Time Machine (1865) was the first of its very famous works and the pioneer of the genre called “Scientific Romance”.
He lived to see the end of the Second World War and his defense of human rights had a definitive influence on the shaping of the United Nations Organization.
(1854-1900): Born in Dublin, Ireland, he was an exuberant and sparkling playwright, poet and critic. He was a prominent proponent of the esthetism, the controversial theory about art. He published his novel The Portrait of Dorian Gray in 1890 and fell in love with the very young Lord Alfred Douglas.
Since then he lived a double life, publishing social comedies of great success, as the Ideal husband and the importance of calling himself Ernesto while spending his time visiting male brothels.
After being accused of indecent behavior, Wilde spent two years in prison, where he wrote two novels that were published after his death: De Profundis and The Ballad of Reading Gaol. Ruined economically, repudiated by society and ill-health, he spent the rest of his life in Europe. He died in Paris on November 30, 1900, at 46 years old.
(1770-1850) This English poet, born in Cockermouth, was inspired by the dramatic landscapes of Lake District to write his poetry. After the death of his parents, William and his sister Dorothy settled down in West Country, where they met the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, with whom he published Lyrical Ballads in 1798.